Disease

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis(TB) is a communicative infection that can directly affect the lungs. It can also affect the spine and brain. It is caused because of the bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

       People suffering from tuberculosis have to undergo compulsory treatments. The symptom varies from one person to another due to different organs affected.

Types of tuberculosis:-

  • Bladder and kidney tuberculosis-

          Tuberculosis can also spread

to other organs which also includes the urinary bladder and it leads to a result called TB cystitis. Whenever there is a pressure given for urine there is a sensation of burning.

          Simultaneously, the kidney gets affected. It leads to an increase in urination, being unwell, and pain in the flanks. 

  •  Miliary tuberculosis:-

               Miliary tuberculosis can lead to spread disease from one organ to many others. It is a life-threatening disease and affects lungs, bone marrow, liver and tissues as well. This kind of tuberculosis can be seen in-

  • People with low immune system.
  •  Aged people.
  • Under 4 years old children.
  • Gastrointestinal Tract tuberculosis:-

               The symptom which could be observed in this tuberculosis is a mild fever and generalized fatigue, facing difficulty in swallowing, lack of nutrition, diarrhea.

   

  •  Brain tuberculosis:-

                           Few symptoms of brain tuberculosis are severe headache, mental changes, lower consciousness, photophobia, mild fever , stiffness in neck.

  •  Pulmonary tuberculosis:-

                People with low fever or temperature falling between 99°f and 100°f. The most common symptom is fever and weight loss for no reason.

       

  •  Pleural tuberculosis:-

                 The main symptom of 

Pleural tuberculosis is a lack of breathness in the body because this type affects the lining of the lungs. The liquid present in between two layers is called Pleura. Larger quantity of pleura can be seen in this type of tuberculosis. 

  

  •   Skeletal tuberculosis:-

                              General symptoms of Skeletal tuberculosis are fever, weakness and fatigue. The main symptom is spinal pain and it gets worse along with the time. As the infection spreads along the spinal column it leads to irritation in the muscles.

 Symptoms of tuberculosis-

  • Fever 
  • Night sweats
  • Clogging of blood 
  • Fatigue
  • Chills 
  • Weight loss
  • Chest pain 
  • Coughing
  • Appetite loss

Cause of tuberculosis-

      The bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis is present and thus causes tuberculosis in a person.

    The tuberculosis spreads to one another when a person with active TB coughs or sneezes and the other person inhales the same. It cannot be spread so easily because to spread the disease a person should spend several times with the infected person and usually it is common to spread to family members.

       Commonly spreads through the flu and cold.

Treatment of tuberculosis:-

          Patients have to be diagnosed by continued medication and to have least contact with other people.

Few tests which have to be done are:-

  • Skin test
  • Blood test
  • Mantoux test 
  • Urination test 
  • Brain test 
  • Imaging test
  • Sputum test 

Once the bacteria becomes active it cannot be stopped from growing. The doctors prescribe a few drugs which should be taken correctly. The most common drugs used are Isoniazid, Rifampin, Ethambutol, and Pyrazinamide.

   Completing the treatment is necessary or else the bacteria starts growing.Few side effects are seen during the treatment and they are –

  • Jaundice
  • Fever which last for few days 
  • Vomiting 
  • Dark urine 
  • Loss of appetite 

Thus, having a continuous treatment can cure the disease. The mental and physical health has to be maintained to fight back and to kill the bacteria.

               

    

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